An good look at steelmaking as done during WWII, long before OSHA and EPA. For most iron-making, the essential features are coke ovens and the blast furnace, where coke is produced from coal and iron ore is melted (reduced) to produce pig iron, respectively. The furnace is charged from the top with iron ore, coke and limestone; hot air, frequently enriched with oxygen, is blown in from the bottom; and the carbon produced from the coke transforms the iron ore into pig iron containing carbon, with the generation of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The limestone acts as a flux. At a temperature of 1,600°C, the pig iron melts and collects at the bottom of the furnace. The furnace is tapped (i.e. the pig iron is removed) periodically, and the pig iron is cast into pigs for later use (e.g. in foundries), or is poured into ladles where it is transferred, still molten, to the steel-making plant . The purpose of steel-making operations is to refine the pig iron which contains large amounts of carbon and other impurities. The carbon content must be reduced, the impurities oxidized and removed, and the iron converted into a highly elastic metal that can be forged and fabricated. Alloying agents may be added at this stage. Different types of melting furnace are used in this process. Steel is cast into slabs, billets, bars, ingots and other shapes. Subsequent steps may include scarfing, pickling, annealing, hot and cold rolling, extrusion, galvanizing, surface coating, cutting and slitting, and other operations designed to produce a variety of steel products. Operations in the iron and steel industry may expose workers to a wide range of hazards or workplace activities or conditions that could cause incidents, injury, death, ill health or diseases. For a comprehensive looks at the hazards and their control, go to the 2005 Code of Practice for safety and health in the iron and steel industry at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/pro… .This was clipped from the 1944 US Government film, Steeltown.